Cooper Lighting’s Halo shallow 5? incandescent housing and a list of the trims that go with it. A short neck par 30 fits best in these.
The sink is an area that needs bright task lighting. You can’t layout kitchen lighting without knowing the exact housing, trim and lamp. Different lamp wattage and beam angles will produce widely different light levels at the work surfaces. Kitchen food prep tasks require a lot of light, especially for older eyes trying to read cookbooks.
BR30 sticking out of the ceiling while a short neck par 30 is tucked up nicely? Recessed lights need to be recessed. The idea is not to see the glaring lamp from across the room.
Have you explored the possibility of furring down the ceiling so that normal recessed fixtures will fit? Your upper cabinets are higher than standard so you have a few inches of room to lower them if they were designed to hit the ceiling. 2×6 combo roof/ceiling joists and recessed fixtures have always been a problem. Most fixtures are designed for attic above or 2×8 minimum and the best fixtures are designed for 2×10.